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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Effect of oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized, controlled, triple-blind study
Sharath Asokan, Pamela Emmadi, Raghuraman Chamundeswari
January-March 2009, 20(1):47-51
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.49067  PMID:19336860
Background: Oil pulling has been used extensively as a traditional Indian folk remedy for many years for strengthening teeth, gums, and the jaw and to prevent decay, oral malodor, bleeding gums, dryness of the throat, and cracked lips. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil pulling with sesame oil on plaque-induced gingivitis and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Methods : A total of 20 age-matched adolescent boys with plaque-induced gingivitis were selected for this study. They were divided randomly into the study or oil pulling group (Group I) and the control or chlorhexidine group (Group II) with 10 subjects in each group. Plaque index and modified gingival index scores were recorded for the 20 subjects and baseline plaque samples were also collected. The plaque samples were used to identify the microorganisms and to measure the total colony count of the aerobic microorganisms present. The study group was subjected to oil pulling with sesame oil and the control group was given chlorhexidine mouthwash everyday in the morning before brushing. Reassessment of the index scores and collection of plaque for measuring the colony count of the aerobic microorganisms was done after 10 days. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction of the pre- and post-values of the plaque and modified gingival index scores in both the study and control groups ( P < 0.001 in both). There was a considerable reduction in the total colony count of aerobic microorganisms present in both the groups. Conclusion: The oil pulling therapy showed a reduction in the plaque index, modified gingival scores, and total colony count of aerobic microorganisms in the plaque of adolescents with plaque-induced gingivitis.
  89,980 1,252 18
Estimation of nicotine content in popular Indian brands of smoking and chewing tobacco products
Sujatha S Reddy, KH Shaik Hyder Ali
April-June 2008, 19(2):88-91
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40458  PMID:18445921
Objectives: To estimate the nicotine content of some popular Indian brands of smoking tobacco (cigarettes and bidis) and pan masalas (chewable tobacco). Materials and Methods: Commercially available cigarettes, bidis, and pan masalas (chewable tobacco) were obtained from local retail outlets for the study. Nicotine was estimated using gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The analyses showed relatively higher levels of nicotine in tobacco from bidis (26.9 mg gm) as compared to cigarettes(15 mg/gm); the difference is stastically significant ( P < 0.001). The nicotine concentration of tobacco from filtered cigarettes averaged 14.5 mg/gm whereas unfiltered cigarettes averaged 15.6 mg/gm; the difference was not stastically significant ( P > 0.01). Nicotine concentration in chewing tobacco was 3.4 mg/gm. Conclusion: The study concludes that the nicotine content of Indian brands of smoking tobacco was slightly high compared to other international brands. Higher concentration of nicotine was found in bidis compared to cigarettes. The nicotine content in commercially available chewing tobacco products was found to be much lower than in the smoking form of tobacco, but the average daily consumption made it comparable to the smoking form.
  54,067 1,992 9
REVIEW ARTICLES
Dental caries vaccine
KM Shivakumar, SK Vidya, GN Chandu
January-March 2009, 20(1):99-106
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.49066  PMID:19336869
Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.
  35,369 4,346 20
Endo-perio lesions: Diagnosis and clinical considerations
Nina Shenoy, Arvind Shenoy
October-December 2010, 21(4):579-585
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.74238  PMID:21187629
The interrelationship between periodontal and endodontic disease has aroused confusion, queries and controversy. Differentiating between periodontal and endodontic problems can be difficult. A symptomatic tooth may have pain of periodontal and/or pulpal origin. The nature of that pain is often the first clue in determining the etiology of such a problem. Radiographic and clinical evaluation can help clarify the nature of the problem. In some cases, the influence of pulpal pathology may create periodontal involvement. In others, periodontal pathology may create pulpal pathology. This review article discusses the various clinical aspects to be considered for accurately diagnosing and treating endo-perio lesions.
  34,960 1,730 2
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Oil pulling therapy
Sharath Asokan
April-June 2008, 19(2):169-169
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40476  PMID:18445939
  35,114 1,044 9
REVIEW ARTICLES
Platelet-rich fibrin: Evolution of a second-generation platelet concentrate
V Sunitha Raja, E Munirathnam Naidu
January-March 2008, 19(1):42-46
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.38931  PMID:18245923
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a platelet concentrate that has been used widely to accelerate soft-tissue and hard-tissue healing. The preparation of PRP has been described by several authors. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) was first described by Choukroun et al. in France. It has been referred to as a second-generation platelet concentrate, which has been shown to have several advantages over traditionally prepared PRP. Its chief advantages include ease of preparation and lack of biochemical handling of blood, which makes this preparation strictly autologous. This article describes the evolution of this novel platelet concentrate, referred to as PRF.
  29,582 3,873 53
Orofacial manifestations of hematological disorders: Anemia and hemostatic disorders
Titilope A Adeyemo, Wasiu L Adeyemo, Adewumi Adediran, Abd Jaleel A Akinbami, Alani S Akanmu
May-June 2011, 22(3):454-461
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.87070  PMID:22048588
The aim of this paper is to review the literature and identify orofacial manifestations of hematological diseases, with particular reference to anemias and disorders of hemostasis. A computerized literature search using MEDLINE was conducted for published articles on orofacial manifestations of hematological diseases, with emphasis on anemia. Mesh phrases used in the search were: oral diseases AND anaemia; orofacial diseases AND anaemia; orofacial lesions AND anaemia; orofacial manifestations AND disorders of haemostasis. The Boolean operator "AND" was used to combine and narrow the searches. Anemic disorders associated with orofacial signs and symptoms include iron deficiency anemia, Plummer-Vinson syndrome, megaloblastic anemia, sickle cell anemia, thalassaemia and aplastic anemia. The manifestations include conjunctiva and facial pallor, atrophic glossitis, angular stomatitis, dysphagia, magenta tongue, midfacial overgrowth, osteoclerosis, osteomyelitis and paraesthesia/anesthesia of the mental nerve. Orofacial petechiae, conjunctivae hemorrhage, nose-bleeding, spontaneous and post-traumatic gingival hemorrhage and prolonged post-extraction bleeding are common orofacial manifestations of inherited hemostatic disorders such as von Willebrand's disease and hemophilia. A wide array of anemic and hemostatic disorders encountered in internal medicine has manifestations in the oral cavity and the facial region. Most of these manifestations are non-specific, but should alert the hematologist and the dental surgeon to the possibilities of a concurrent disease of hemopoiesis or hemostasis or a latent one that may subsequently manifest itself.
  31,678 1,364 4
Effects of smoking on the outcome of implant treatment: A literature review
Mirza Rustum Baig, Manoj Rajan
October-December 2007, 18(4):190-195
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.35831  PMID:17938497
Statement of Problem: The use of osseointegrated implants as a foundation for the prosthetic replacement of missing teeth has become widespread in the last decade. Owing to the remarkable success of dental implants, there has been growing interest in identifying the factors associated with implant failure. Given the well-documented deleterious effect of smoking on wound healing after tooth extraction and its association with poor quality bone and periodontal disease, a negative effect of tobacco use on implant success is to be expected. Purpose: To establish the relationship between smoking and implant-related surgical procedures (i.e, sinus lift procedures, bone grafts and dental implants), including the incidence of complications related to these procedures and the long-term survival and success rates of dental implants among smokers and nonsmokers based on relevant literature. Materials and Methods: Relevant clinical studies published in English between 1990 and 2006 were reviewed. The articles were located through Medline and, manually, through the references of peer-reviewed literature. This was supplemented with a hand search of selected dental journals and text books. Results: The majority of the past and current literature implicates smoking as one of the prominent risk factors affecting the success rate of dental implants with only a handful of studies failing to establish a connection. Most of the studies report the failure rate of implants in smokers as being more than twice that in nonsmokers. These findings are difficult to ignore. There is a statistically significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in the failure rates of dental implants. Smoking also has a strong influence on the complication rates of implants: it causes significantly more marginal bone loss after implant placement, it increases the incidence of peri-implantitis and affects the success rates of bone grafts. The failure rate of implants placed in grafted maxillary sinuses of smokers is again more than twice that seen in nonsmokers. Conclusion: Smokers have higher failure rates and complications following dental implantation and implant-related surgical procedures. The failure rate of implants placed in grafted maxillary sinuses of smokers is more than twice that seen in nonsmokers.
  28,893 3,082 38
CASE REPORTS
"Liver clot"-A rare periodontal postsurgical complication
Dhara Pandya, Balaji Manohar, LK Mathur, Rajesh Shankarapillai
May-June 2012, 23(3):419-422
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.102244  PMID:23059585
Bleeding is a common sequela of oral and periodontal surgery. Generally, bleeding is self-limiting. Following traumatic injury or surgical procedures, hemorrhage can range from a minor leakage or oozing at the site, to extensive bleeding leading to complete exsanguinations. Significant postsurgical hemorrhage following periodontal surgery is uncommon due to the primary closure of the soft tissues. This case report describes the unique formation of a "liver clot" or "currant jelly clot" following periodontal flap surgery. The likelihood of this may be attributed to many factors, like infection, intrinsic trauma, presence of foreign bodies like splinter of bone, a fleck of enamel, or a piece of dental restorative dressing material that may cause repeated, delayed organization of blood coagulum.
  31,289 308 -
REVIEW
Nanotechnology in dentistry
Saravana R Kumar, R Vijayalakshmi
April-June 2006, 17(2):62-5
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.29890  PMID:17051869
Nanotechnology is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. In the long-term, medical nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and extermination, individual cell surgery in vivo, and improvement of natural physiological function. Current research is focusing on fabrication of nanostructures, nanoactuators, and nanomotors, along with means to assemble them into larger systems, economically and in great numbers.
  25,452 4,442 16
REVIEW ARTICLES
Uses of turmeric in dentistry: An update
TP Chaturvedi
January-March 2009, 20(1):107-109
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.49065  PMID:19336870
Turmeric has been used for thousands of years as a dye, a flavoring, and a medicinal herb. In India, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver ailments, as well as topically to heal sores. Ancient Indian medicine has touted turmeric as an herb with the ability to provide glow and luster to the skin as well as vigor and vitality to the entire body. Since turmeric has antimicrobial, antioxidant, astringent, and other useful properties, it is quite useful in Dentistry also. The objective of this article is to highlight various uses of turmeric in the dental field along with its use in medical problems.
  27,810 1,979 10
REVIEW ARTICLE
Complete denture impression techniques: Evidence-based or philosophical
Shefali Singla
July-September 2007, 18(3):124-127
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.33788  PMID:17687175
Code of practice is dangerous and ever-changing in today's world. Relating this to complete denture impression technique, we have been provided with a set of philosophies - "no pressure, minimal pressure, definite pressure and selective pressure". The objectives and principles of impression-making have been clearly defined. Do you think any philosophy can satisfy any operator to work on these principles and achieve these objectives? These philosophies take into consideration only the tissue part and not the complete basal seat, which comprises the periphery, the tissues and the bone structure. Under such circumstances, should we consider a code of practice dangerous or should we develop an evidence-based approach having a scientific background following certain principles, providing the flexibility to adapt to clinical procedures and to normal biological variations in patients rather than the rigidity imposed by strict laws?
  25,922 2,529 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV: Classification and management of common oral diseases
Sunita Amruthesh
January-March 2008, 19(1):52-61
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.38933  PMID:18245925
This article, the fourth in the series titled 'Dentistry and Ayurveda,' describes in brief the panchakarma therapy, which is a distinctive feature of the Ayurvedic method of detoxifying the body. The various therapies and medicines used in Ayurveda have been elaborated. Further, an attempt has been made to correlate dental diseases in Ayurveda with the modern-day classification, clinical features, and management.
  23,609 2,338 4
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
A comparative study on microwave and routine tissue processing
T Mahesh Babu, N Malathi, KT Magesh
January-February 2011, 22(1):50-55
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.79975  PMID:21525677
Aim and Objective: The present study was aimed at assessing the rapid microwave-assisted tissue processing and staining to determine if it can replace standard formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded processing and staining technique. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 15 oral mucosal biopsies. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin for 24 hours to ensure adequate fixation and their gross features were recorded, photographed, and then the specimens were cut into equal halves to be processed by both conventional and microwave histoprocessing methods and then subsequently stained with H and E by microwave and conventional methods. The stained slides in each group processed by both microwave and routine methods were randomly numbered for a blind study and circulated among six observers. All the observers were asked to grade each parameter into Excellent/Good/Average/Poor in a data sheet comprising a total of six parameters. These gradings were given a numerical value of 4, 3, 2 and 1, respectively. The parameters included in the data sheet were cellular clarity, cytoplasmic details, nuclear details, color intensity, interface of epithelium and connective tissue. Wilcoxon-matched pairs signed rank test (non-parametric) was used to calculate the test of significance (P value). Results: The total processing time involved in microwave was 42 minutes and 270 minutes for the conventional method. H and E staining in microwave took 33 minutes and 40 minutes for conventional method. Conclusions: The individual scores by different observers regarding the various parameters included in the study were statistically insignificant, the overall quality of microwave-processed and microwave-stained slides appeared slightly better than conventionally processed and stained slides.
  22,413 470 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
An overview of the corrosion aspect of dental implants (titanium and its alloys)
TP Chaturvedi
January-March 2009, 20(1):91-98
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.49068  PMID:19336868
Titanium and its alloys are used in dentistry for implants because of its unique combination of chemical, physical, and biological properties. They are used in dentistry in cast and wrought form. The long term presence of corrosion reaction products and ongoing corrosion lead to fractures of the alloy-abutment interface, abutment, or implant body. The combination of stress, corrosion, and bacteria contribute to implant failure. This article highlights a review of the various aspects of corrosion and biocompatibility of dental titanium implants as well as suprastructures. This knowledge will also be helpful in exploring possible research strategies for probing the biological properties of materials.
  21,202 1,585 42
CASE REPORTS
Eruption cyst: A literature review and four case reports
NB Nagaveni, KV Umashankara, NB Radhika, TS Maj Satisha
January-February 2011, 22(1):148-151
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.79982  PMID:21525694
Eruption cyst is a benign cyst associated with a primary or permanent tooth in its soft tissue phase after erupting through the bone. It is most prevalent in the Caucasian race. Intraoral examination of four patients revealed eruption cyst. Among these, in three patients it occurred in the maxillary arch and one had it in the mandibular arch. All were associated with permanent tooth. Surgical treatment was done in three cases and in one case the cyst disappeared gradually and tooth erupted in normal pattern. Four cases of eruption cyst from India are presented and literature on this condition is reviewed. It is clinically significant in that knowledge among general dentists is very essential regarding this developmental disturbance to reach the correct diagnosis and to provide proper treatment.
  22,244 471 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Fungal infections of the oral mucosa
P Anitha Krishnan
September-October 2012, 23(5):650-659
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.107384  PMID:23422613
Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa.
  20,059 1,233 2
Physiology and toxicity of fluoride
Vineet Dhar, Maheep Bhatnagar
July-September 2009, 20(3):350-355
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.57379  PMID:19884722
Fluoride has been described as an essential element needed for normal development and growth of animals and extremely useful for human beings. Fluoride is abundant in the environment and the main source of fluoride to humans is drinking water. It has been proved to be beneficial in recommended doses, and at the same time its toxicity at higher levels has also been well established. Fluoride gets accumulated in hard tissues of the body and has been know to play an important role in mineralization of bone and teeth. At high levels it has been known to cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. There are suggested effects of very high levels of fluoride on various body organs and genetic material. The purpose of this paper is to review the various aspects of fluoride and its importance in human life.
  19,357 1,762 42
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Evaluation of working length determination methods: An in vivo / ex vivo study
Muthu Shanmugaraj, Rajendran Nivedha, Rajan Mathan, Sundaresan Balagopal
April-June 2007, 18(2):60-62
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.32421  PMID:17502709
This comparative study was done to determine the accuracy in measuring the working length of root canal using tactile method, electronic apex locator and radiographic method, in viv o, and comparing the lengths so measured to the actual working length, ex vivo , after extraction. Thirty single-rooted teeth scheduled for extraction were selected for the study. After obtaining the consent from patients, a preoperative radiograph was taken and access opening was done. Working length was determined by tactile method, by using Ingle's radiographic method and by using a Foramatron-IV digital apex locator. The teeth were then extracted and the actual working length was determined by placing an endodontic file in the root canal 0.5 mm short of the apex. The results indicated that among the three methods, the electronic apex locator showed the highest accuracy and the highest reliability for working length determination.
  18,427 2,011 12
REVIEW ARTICLES
Impact factor and other standardized measures of journal citation: A perspective
Vijay Prakash Mathur, Ashutosh Sharma
January-March 2009, 20(1):81-85
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.49072  PMID:19336866
The impact factor of journals has been widely used as glory quotients. Despite its limitations, this citation metric is widely used to reflect scientific merit and standing in one's field. Apart from the impact factor, other bibliometric indicators are also available but are not as popular among decision makers. These indicators are the immediacy index and cited half-life. The impact factor itself is affected by a wide range of sociological and statistical factors. This paper discusses the limitations of the impact factor with suggestions of how it can be used and how it should not be used. It also discusses how other bibliometric indicators can be used to assess the quality of publications.
  16,853 3,414 30
CASE REPORT
Treatment of gingival pigmentation : A case series
Deepak Prasad, S Sunil, R Mishra, Sheshadri
October-December 2005, 16(4):171-176
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.29901  PMID:16761712
A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of 'black gums' are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile). For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision) cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.
  20,215 0 5
REVIEW ARTICLES
Oral lichen planus versus oral lichenoid reaction: Difficulties in the diagnosis
Renata Falchete Do Prado, Luciana Sassa Marocchio, Renata Callestini Felipini
July-September 2009, 20(3):361-364
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.57375  PMID:19884724
Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous disease with well-established clinical and microscopic features. The oral mucosa and skin may present clinical and microscopic alterations similar to those observed in LP, called lichenoid reactions (LRs), which are triggered by systemic or topical etiological agents. The difficulties faced to establish the differential diagnosis between the two pathologies were investigated in the literature. It was observed that the etiology of LP is still under discussion, with a tendency to self-immunity, while the etiology of LRs is related to the contact with specific agents, such as metallic restorative materials, resins, and drugs, allowing the establishment of a cause-effect relationship. In this case, the disease is caused by the antigen fixation in the epithelial cells, which are destructed by the immune system. Based on these data, protocols are suggested for this differentiation. The important role played by the integration between the clinician and the oral pathologist in the diagnostic process is highlighted. The treatment of LP comprises mainly the utilization of corticosteroids and the LR is treated by removal of the causal factor. Differentiation between the two diseases allows an effective and correct therapeutic approach.
  18,207 1,680 10
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Clinical evaluation of an ionic tooth brush on oral hygiene status, gingival status, and microbial parameter
J Deshmukh, KL Vandana, KT Chandrashekar, B Savitha
April-June 2006, 17(2):74-7
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.29887  PMID:17051872
It has long been recognised that the presence of dental plaque leads to gingivitis and periodontal disease, as well as dental caries. Today tooth brushing is the most widely accepted method of removing plaque. Hence this present clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of an ionic toothbrush on oral hygiene status. For this study, 20 dental students in the age group of 18-20 years were included. All the subjects after undergoing dental prophylaxis were then provided with ionic toothbrushes, either active (equipped with lithium battery) or inactive (without lithium battery). Plaque index and gingival bleeding index were examined at 7th, 14th, and 21st day. Microbial assessment was done for detection of colony forming units (CFU) from the plaque samples which were collected on 0 day and 21st day, both before brushing and after brushing. Results shown a significant reduction in all the parameters and the reduction was more significant in active and inactive ionic toothbrush users. It was concluded that both active and inactive ionic toothbrushes reduced the plaque index and gingival bleeding index scores significantly and active ionic tooth brushes were more effective as compared to inactive ionic toothbrushes. There was no soft tissue trauma following the use of both type of toothbrushes, which showed that ionic toothbrushes were equally safe for regular long-term use.
  18,962 821 2
Pentoxifylline therapy : A new adjunct in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis
R Rajendran, Vidya Rani, Saleem Shaikh
October-December 2006, 17(4):190-198
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.29865  PMID:17217216
OBJECTIVE : This study was designed to determine the effect of pentoxifylline (Trental) on the clinical and pathologic course of oral submucous fibrosis. This drug is a methylxanthine derivative that has vasodilating properties and was envisaged to increase mucosal vascularity. STUDY DESIGN : This investigation was conducted as a randomized clinical trial incorporating a control group (Standard drug group SDG, multivitamin, and local heat therapy) in comparison to pentoxifylline test cases (Experimental drug group EDG, 400mg 3 times daily, as coated, sustained release tablets). The stipulated treatment period was 7 months and a total of 29 cases of advanced fibrosis (14 test subjects and 15 age and sex matched diseased controls) were included in this study and 100% compliance was reported at the end ofthe test period. RESULTS : Mild gastric irritation that could be managed by diet protocols was the only untoward symptom reported during this trial. Review of the patients and controls was done at an interval of 30 days and subjective and objective measurements were recorded. The follow up data at each visit with respect to each other and to base-line values was calibrated using a nonparametric test of Mann-Whitney (Kruskal-Wallis test). Significant comparisons with regard to improvement were recorded as objective criteria of mouth opening (t=11.285, p= 0.000), tongue protrusion (t= 3.898, p = 0.002), and relief from perioral fibrotic bands (p = 0.0001554). Subjective symptoms of intolerance to spices (p = 0.0063218), burning sensation of mouth (p = 0.0005797), tinnitus (p=0.000042), difficulty in swallowing (p=0.0000714). and difficulty in speech (p=0.0000020) were also recorded significant improvement at the end of the trial period. CONCLUSION : This pilot investigation points to the effectiveness of pentoxifylline as an adjunct therapy in the routine management of oral submucous fibrosis.
  19,374 6 37
REVIEW ARTICLES
Tobacco smoking and surgical healing of oral tissues: A review
SM Balaji
October-December 2008, 19(4):344-348
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.44540  PMID:19075440
It is believed that the crew of Columbus had introduced tobacco from the 'American India' to the rest of the world, and tobacco was attributed as a medicinal plant. It was often used to avert hunger during long hours of work. But in reality, tobacco causes various ill effects including pre-malignant lesions and cancers. This article aims at reviewing the literature pertaining to the effect of tobacco smoking upon the outcome of various surgical procedures performed in the oral cavity. Tobacco affects postoperative wound healing following surgical and nonsurgical tooth extractions, routine maxillofacial surgeries, implants, and periodontal therapies. In an experimental study, bone regeneration after distraction osteogenesis was found to be negatively affected by smoking. Thus, tobacco, a peripheral vasoconstrictor, along with its products like nicotine increases platelet adhesiveness, raises the risk of microvascular occlusion, and causes tissue ischemia. Smoking tobacco is also associated with catecholamines release resulting in vasoconstriction and decreased tissue perfusion. Smoking is believed to suppress the innate and host immune responses, affecting the function of neutrophils - the prime line of defense against infection. Thus, the association between smoking and delayed healing of oral tissues following surgeries is evident. Dental surgeons should stress on the ill effects of tobacco upon the routine postoperative healing to smoker patients and should aid them to become tobacco-free.
  17,119 1,820 32
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