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ORIGINAL RESEARCH Table of Contents   
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 362-366
A study of complexity of oral mucosa using fractal geometry

1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, VSPM's Dental College and Research Center, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology, VSPM's Dental College and Research Center, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Payal Peshwani
F3/06, Gangasagar Hostel, Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Hingana Road, Digdoh Hills, Nagpur - 440 019, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_738_16

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Background: The oral mucosa lining the oral cavity is composed of epithelium supported by connective tissue. The shape of the epithelial-connective tissue interface has traditionally been used to describe physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. Aim: The aim is to evaluate the morphometric complexity in normal, dysplastic, well-differentiated, and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral mucosa using fractal geometry. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 periodic acid–Schiff stained histological images of four groups: normal mucosa, dysplasia, well-differentiated SCC, and moderately differentiated SCC were verified by the gold standard. These images were then subjected to fractal analysis. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and post hoc test: Bonferroni was applied. Results: Fractal dimension (FD) increases as the complexity increases from normal to dysplasia and then to SCC. Normal buccal mucosa was found to be significantly different from dysplasia and the two grades of SCC (P < 0.05). ANOVA of fractal scores of four morphometrically different groups of buccal mucosa was significantly different with F (3,76) = 23.720 and P< 0.01. However, FD of dysplasia was not significantly different from well-differentiated and moderately differentiated SCC (P = 1.000 and P = 0.382, respectively). Conclusion: This study establishes FD as a newer tool in differentiating normal tissue from dysplastic and neoplastic tissue. Fractal geometry is useful in the study of both physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. A new grading system based on FD may emerge as an adjuvant aid in cancer diagnosis.

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