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ORIGINAL RESEARCH Table of Contents   
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 755-762
Role of angiogenesis in oral submucous fibrosis using vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34: An immunohistochemical study

1 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies College, Modinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology, Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India
3 Department of Diagnostic Sciences and Oral Biology, Division of Oral Pathology, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
4 Dental Surgeon, Institute of Dental Sciences, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ettishree Sharma
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies College, Kadrabad, Modinagar - 201 201, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_186_17

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Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an insidious, chronic, disabling disease, in which there is lack of perfusion due to reduced level of the vasculature and this is said to be responsible for the epithelial atrophy seen in OSF. The degree of vasculature of the affected mucosa and its effects on the epithelial thickness remains controversial till date. Aims: This study attempts to analyze the role of angiogenesis in OSF and its progression using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 markers. Materials and Methods: The study samples for the present study comprised of 10 cases each of early OSF, moderately advanced, advanced OSF, and 10 cases of normal oral mucosa were used as controls. All the cases were subjected to immunohistochemical staining with VEGF and CD34 markers. Results: Among the different grades of OSF, we did not find any noticeable difference in VEGF expression although we found a upregulation in microvessel density (CD34) in early and moderately advanced OSF followed by a downregulation in advanced OSF. Conclusions: As the disease progresses, there is an increased production of the extracellular matrix component (collagen I and II and fibronectin) and results in fibrosis. Subsequently, it leads to the reduction in the level of corium vascularity and results in hypoxia which ultimately causes reduction and constriction of the vascular channels. This sequence of events alerts us to the relevance of early disease diagnosis and management in an irreversible pathology such as OSF.

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