|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 124-128
|Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of cinnamon extract, neem extract as irrigant and sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus fecalis: An in vitro study
Veerale Panchal1, Deepa Gurunathan1, NP Muralidharan2
1 Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Technical and Medical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Technical and Medical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Click here for correspondence address and email
|Date of Submission||04-Mar-2018|
|Date of Acceptance||03-Oct-2018|
|Date of Web Publication||02-Apr-2020|
| Abstract|| |
Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the antibacterial effectiveness between cinnamon extract as irrigant with neem extract irrigant and sodium hypochlorite against E. fecalis. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized controlled in vitro study conducted on 60 extracted permanent single rooted teeth. The teeth were divided into three groups- Group 1 was irrigated with cinnamon extract, Group 2 was irrigated with neem extract irrigant and Group 3 with 3% sodium hypochlorite. The colonies in the reduction of E. feacalis was noted as CFU values per ml. Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used to compare in between the three groups. Mann- Whitney's test was used for inter group comparison between the three groups. Results: Cinnamon extract had the maximum reduction in the CFU colonies followed by sodium hypochlorite. Neem extract irrigant had the least reduction in the colonies of E. feacalis. (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Cinnamon extract irrigant show better reduction in E. fecalis as compared to 3% sodium hypochlorite and neem extract irrigant.
Keywords: Cinnamon extract, endodontic irrigant, Enterococcus feacalis, neem extract, sodium hypochlorite
|How to cite this article:|
Panchal V, Gurunathan D, Muralidharan N P. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of cinnamon extract, neem extract as irrigant and sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus fecalis: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2020;31:124-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Panchal V, Gurunathan D, Muralidharan N P. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of cinnamon extract, neem extract as irrigant and sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus fecalis: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2022 Jan 22];31:124-8. Available from: https://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2020/31/1/124/281798
| Introduction|| |
Pulpal and periapical pathology is the major cause of pain among patients. The primary cause of pulpal and periapical infection is the colonization of the micro-organisms. The foci of infection consists of gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic micro-organisms. Among all the colonies of micro-organisms, Enterococcus fecalis is the most predominant species leading to infection and reinfection in the root canal systems. The resistance of E. fecalis was due to its increased penetration in the dentinal tubules, thus making the accessibility difficult with mechanical cleaning alone. Thus, the objective of root canal treatment involves elimination of microbes from the root canal system.
Biomechanical preparation involves removal of infected dentin and debridement of the root canals. Instrumentation of the root canals shapes and prepares the canal to aid in better debridement. An addition of antimicrobial irrigant to the biomechanical preparation will aid in flushing the debris out of the canals with extended antibacterial action. The ideal requirements of irrigants include its ability to dissolve pulp along with removal of smear layer and an extended antimicrobial action.
Sodium hypochlorite fulfils most of the requirements of the ideal endodontic irrigant and is widely used in dentistry., It has been the choice of irrigant due to its pulp dissolving capacity, antimicrobial action and ability to remove smear layer. However, cases have been reported of allergic reaction due to the use of sodium hypochlorite., There have been cases of tissue toxicity and accidental mishaps associated with sodium hypochlorite., A bad smell and taste is also associated with irrigation using sodium hypochlorite. To overcome this disadvantage, other herbal alternatives have been considered over time.
Neem also known as Azadirachta indica is widely used in clinical dentistry due to it antibacterial and antiviral properties. Studies have been done to evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of neem against wide variety of micro-organism., The advantage of using neem as an endodontic irrigant is due to its antibacterial and antioxidant properties. It shows a wide spectrum of action against gram positive and gram negative oraganism.
Cinnamon also known as C. zeylanicum has gained popularity in recent time due its antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action of cinnamon is due to the presence of vanillic, caffeic, gallic, protocatechuic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids in the extracts. It has shown effectiveness against S. mutans and E. fecalis organisms. It is also known to show a wide spectrum of action on gram positive and gram negative organism.
Due to a various choice of herbal irrigants available and its advantage over the traditional chemical agents, a wide number of studies have evaluated the effectiveness between herbal agents and chemical agents.,,, However there needs to be a comparison between the effectiveness of two herbal irrigants against specific micro-organism.
In this regard, the present study aims to compare neem extract, cinnamon extract and sodium hypochlorite as irrigant. The comparison is based on the effectiveness of these irrigants against E. fecalis in extracted permanent teeth.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The present study followed an in vitro study design. The study design was approved by the institutional review board of the dental institution. The present study was a single blinded study. Two different personnel was assigned for the study. The shaping of the canals was done by a single operator. The same operator irrigated the study groups of irrigants into the canals. The antibacterial efficacy was evaluated using colony forming units. The colonies were counted by a separate operator who was unaware of the three groups.
The present study uses ethanolic extract of neem and cinnamon to prepare the irrigation solution. The ethanolic extract of neem was obtained from neem leaf ground into coarse and medium coarse particles. These particles were mixed with 50% ethanol and this suspension was placed on the magnetic stirrer for 4 hours. Whitman's filter paper was used to obtain the filtrate which was then dried to obtain the extract. The extract was dried to evaporate the solvent to prevent the influence of extracting agent (ethanol) on the final extract. Cinnamon extract was obtained using cinnamon bark which was pulverized into medium coarse granules. The extracting agent and the procedure to obtain the final extract was similar to that for neem extract. These extracts were stored in dark colored bottles at 4 degree Celsius until use.
The irrigating solution was prepared my mixing the crude extract in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) solvent. Previous studies have noted MIC for neem extract to be 25% and for cinnamon extract to be 20%. Neem extract was prepared by dissolving 25 grams of crude extract in 100 ml DMSO solution. Similarly, cinnamon extract was prepared by dissolving 20 grams of crude extract in 100 ml of DMSO. The final solution were refrigerated at 4 degree Celsius.
The present study includes a total of 60 extracted teeth. The teeth included were single rooted permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic purpose or due to any periodontal problems. The included teeth were inspected for intact root surface. Any tissue tags, calculus or debris present on the teeth were removed to obtain a clean external surface. These teeth were stored in normal saline until use to prevent desiccation of the tooth surface.
The extracted teeth were mounted on individual block of modelling wax. Access opening was done with No. 4 round carbide bur (DENTSPLY Maillefer, OK, USA). The dentinal overhangs of the roof of the pulp chamber was removed used a safe ended tungsten carbide bur (Endo-Z, FG, DENTSPLY Maillefer, OK, USA). 20 no stainless steel K- file (DENTSPLY Maillefer, OK, USA) was used to check the patency of the canals up to the apex. The working length was determined using radiograph and was kept 0.5 mm short of the radiographic apex. After initial instrumentation up to no 30 stainless steel hand files, rotary instrumentation was done using ProTaper (DENTSPLY Maillefer, OK, USA) up to F3. The sequential order for ProTaper was followed. Saline was used to remove the debris in between the instrumentation sequence. After complete instrumentation the tooth were scheduled for the inoculation of E. fecalis
Before the inoculation of E. fecalis in the tooth, all the teeth were autoclaved twice at 121 degree Celsius for the elimination of all the microbes from the tooth and prevent contamination of the study with other microbes. A pure culture of test strain of E. fecalis ATCC 29212 (Department of Microbiology, PGIMS) was prepared in sterile nutrient broth. The presence of E. fecalis was confirmed in the nutrient broth by pipetting 10 micro liter of the broth and observing its presence under microscope. Nutrient broth inoculated with E. fecalis was transferred in a sterile container. The level of the broth was marked. The extracted teeth placed in the nutrient broth containing E. fecalis and incubated for 21 days at 37 degree Celsius. The level of the nutrient broth was checked daily, and new broth inoculated with E. fecalis was added to maintain all the extracted teeth completely submerged in the inoculated broth for 21 days.
The inoculated teeth were divided into three groups for the irrigation protocol. 20 teeth were randomly assigned to each group. Each tooth was assigned a serial number. The allocation of each sample into individual groups was done using block randomization using lots. Group 1 was irrigated using 3% sodium hypochlorite, group 2 was irrigated using neem extract irrigant and group 3 was irrigated using cinnamon extract irrigant. The solution was irrigated using flexible tip attached to a 5 ml irrigating syringe. Each tooth was irrigated with 5 ml of irrigating solution. The irrigating solution was left in contact with the tooth surface for 20 minutes.
After 20 minutes, the sample of dentin was taken to evaluate the reduced colony forming units. No 2 Gates-Glidden drill was used to remove the dentin sample from each tooth. A fresh sterilized Gates-Glidden drill was used for every tooth to prevent cross-contamination. The dentin debris from the gates Glidden drill was transferred to 1 ml of saline. All the micro-test tubes were kept in water bath for 30 minutes at 62 degree Celsius to prevent cross- contamination. 25 microliters of the solution from the micro test tubes were pipetted and inoculated on the nutrient agar. This agar was incubated at 37 degree Celsius and the colonies of E. fecalis was calculated under magnifying glass. The presence of E. fecalis was verified using an eosinophilic and gentian violet staining to verify gram positive organism.
The data obtained were entered in the spreadsheet and and statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 22. (IBM Corp, Armont, NY, USA). Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the CFU values per ml between the three groups. Mann-Whitney's test was used was used in multiple pairwise comparison between the groups.
| Results|| |
A total of 60 permanent single rooted teeth are included in the study. Out of the total teeth included 52 were single rooted lower premolars. 5 were upper central incisors and 3 were lateral incisors. Out of the 20 teeth irrigated with neem extract irrigant, 16 were premolars, 3 central incisor and 1 lateral incisor. Out of the 20 teeth irrigated with cinnamon extract irrigant, 18 were premolars, 1 central incisor and 1 lateral incisor. Out of the 20 teeth irrigated with sodium hypochlorite, 18 were premolars, 1 lateral incisor and 1 central incisor. The outcome variable for all the groups is the CFU values per ml.
The Normality tests Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilks tests results reveal that the variable follows a non-normal distribution of data. Therefore to analyze the data non-parametric methods are applied.
The mean CFU values obtained using neem as irrigant was 0.72 × 103 having a standard deviation of 0.34. The mean CFU values obtained using cinnamon extract as irrigant was 0.25 × 103 having a standard deviation of 0.08. The mean CFU values obtained using sodium hypochlorite as irrigant is 0.40 × 103 having a standard deviation of 0.30 [Table 1].
|Table 1: Comparision of colony forming units values between cinnamon extract irrigant, neem extract irrigant and sodium hypochlorite|
Click here to view
Kurskal-Wallis test was used to compare CFU values between the three groups. Kruskal Wallis test showed a significant difference between the three groups with cinnamon extract irrigant having the least CFU values (P = 0.007) [Table 1] and [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Comparison of CFU values between cinnamon extract irrigant, neem extract irrigant and sodium hypochlorite|
Click here to view
Mann-Whitney's test was used for multiple pairwise comparison between the three groups. Cinnamon extract irrigant showed significantly less CFU values as compared to neem extract irrigant (P = 0.004). However, cinnamon extract irrigant as compared to sodium hypochlorite showed lower CFU values but the results was not statistically significant (P = 0.185) [Table 2]. On the other hand sodium hypochlorite irrigant showed statistically significant lower CFU values as compared to neem extract irrigant (P = 0.031). Thus, cinnamon extract showed statistically significant difference to reduce the E. fecalis colonies as compared to other two groups [Table 3] and [Table 4].
|Table 2: Intergroup comparison of colony forming units values between hypochlorite irrigant and neem extract irrigant|
Click here to view
|Table 3: Intergroup comparison of colony forming units values between cinnamon irrigant and hypochlorite irrigant|
Click here to view
|Table 4: Intergroup comparison of colony forming units values between cinnamon irrigant and hypochlorite irrigant|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The root canal of infected teeth is the harbor of various colonies of micro-organisms. Out of all the inhabitant species, E. fecalis is the major cause of infection and reinfection of the root canal. Elimination of E. fecalis from the root canal has always been a challenge for complete disinfection of the root canal due to its deeper penetration in the dentinal tubules.
The primary objective of root canal treatment is complete disinfection of root canals and elimination of microbes. Biomechanical preparation is the primary step for the elimination of microbes. The biomechanical preparation involves instrumentation which aids in the removal of infected dentin and use of irrigants to aid in complete removal of debris and disinfection.
Chemical irrigants have been in practice over a long time in the disinfection of infected root canal. Due to its antibacterial action and pulp dissolving ability, sodium hypochlorite is being used as an ideal irrigant for root canal treatment. Other irrigants with increased increased antibacterial effectiveness such as chlorhexidine has also been advocated in necrotic teeth. However, there has been an increased allergic reaction and adverse effects associated with the use of chemical irrigants. To overcome this, the use of herbal alternatives having comparable antibacterial effectiveness should be considered.
Neem extract is the most common herbal extract used as an irrigant due to its antioxidant properties which aid in antibacterial action against E. fecalis. Dutta and Kundabala in 2014 showed similar antibacterial efficacy of neem extract as irrigant with sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine irrigant against E. fecalis. Babaji et al. have found comparable effectiveness of neem irrigant with sodium hypochlorite irrigation.
Cinnamon extract has recently gained a limelight as an irrigant in endodontics due its antibacterial properties. Gupta-Wadhwa et al. have demonstrated comparable antibacterial effectiveness of cinnamon than other herbal irrigants. Gupta et al. also shows higher antibacterial effectiveness of cinnamon extract as compared to other herbal agents.
The literature reveals no existing study which compares the antimicrobial effectiveness between neem and cinnamon as irrigant. Thus this study aims in comparing the recently used trends of cinnamon extract as irrigant to the traditionally used herbal irrigants. Sodium hypochlorite being the ideal chemical agent is used as a comparative agent, to evaluate the comparative antibacterial effectiveness between the three.
The present study is a randomized controlled trial with the in vitro study design. Randomization was followed in the present study to avoid selection bias. Only the observer was blinded in the present study. Due to the color and odor of individual irrigants, blinding of the operator was not possible.
The present study shows cinnamon extract irrigant to have better antibacterial effectiveness followed by sodium hypochlorite. The neem showed to have least antibacterial effectiveness. These results are contradictory to previous study by Gupta-Wadhwa et al., where sodium hypochlorite showed higher effectiveness as compared to cinnamon extract. This can be attributed to a lower concentration of sodium hypochlorite used in the present study as compared to other study. The present study showed similar results in relation to comparison of neem and sodium hypochlorite. According to Sinha et al., neem extract showed less antibacterial effectiveness as compared to sodium hypochlorite irrigant. The present study shows cinnamon extract to have higher antibacterial effectiveness against E. fecalis than neem irrigant. This study however does not show the pharmacological characteristics of the agent to determine the exact mechanism of action the herbal agents. The present study is thus a preliminary study comparing the antibacterial effectiveness of two herbal irrigants.
The present study compares the antibacterial effectiveness of only two herbal agents. Further improvement in the study can be done by including more herbal agents in the comparison. The present study evaluates the colony forming units per ml to determine the antibacterial efficacy. However, further improvement in the study can done by evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy by more standardized methods like PCR. This can aid in achieving more standardized results.
This study thus acts as a preliminary study to compare cinnamon extract, neem extract irrigant and sodium hypochlorite irrigant. This study recommends further studies at a molecular level to understand the exact mechanism of the action of pharmacological agents.
| Conclusion|| |
The present study shows cinnamon extract to have better effectiveness followed by sodium hypochlorite and neem extract irrigant. This study thus acts as a preliminary study to compare the antibacterial effectiveness of cinnamon extract irrigant and neem extract irrigant with sodium hypochlorite.
The authors acknowledge the department of microbiology Saveetha dental college for their support for the laboratory work.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Fabricius L, Dahlén G, Holm SE, Möller AJ. Influence of combinations of oral bacteria on periapical tissues of monkeys. Scand J Dent Res 1982;90:200-6.
Gomes BP, Pinheiro ET, Gadê-Neto CR, Sousa EL, Ferraz CC, Zaia AA, et al.
Microbiological examination of infected dental root canals. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2004;19:71-6.
Ruoff KL, de la Maza L, Murtagh MJ, Spargo JD, Ferraro MJ. Species identities of enterococci isolated from clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol 1990;28:435-7.
Love RM. Enterococcus faecalis
– A mechanism for its role in endodontic failure. Int Endod J 2001;34:399-405.
Chugal NM, Clive JM, Spångberg LS. A prognostic model for assessment of the outcome of endodontic treatment: Effect of biologic and diagnostic variables. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001;91:342-52.
Roudsari RV, Jawad S, Taylor C, Darcey J, Qualtrough A. Modern endodontic principles. Part 8: The future of endodontics. Dent Update 2016;43:430-2, 435-8, 441.
Young GR, Parashos P, Messer HH. The principles of techniques for cleaning root canals. Aust Dent J 2007;52:S52-63.
Zehnder M. Root canal irrigants. J Endod 2006;32:389-98.
Ayhan H, Sultan N, Cirak M, Ruhi MZ, Bodur H. Antimicrobial effects of various endodontic irrigants on selected microorganisms. Int Endod J 1999;32:99-102.
Byström A, Sundqvist G. Bacteriologic evaluation of the effect of 0.5 percent sodium hypochlorite in endodontic therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1983;55:307-12.
Guivarc'h M, Ordioni U, Ahmed HM, Cohen S, Catherine JH, Bukiet F. Sodium hypochlorite accident: A systematic review. J Endod 2017;43:16-24.
Faras F, Abo-Alhassan F, Sadeq A, Burezq H. Complication of improper management of sodium hypochlorite accident during root canal treatment. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2016;6:493-6.
Mehdipour O, Kleier DJ, Averbach RE. Anatomy of sodium hypochlorite accidents. Compend Contin Educ Dent Jamesburg NJ 1995 2007;28:544-6, 548, 550.
Chaugule VB, Panse AM, Gawali PN. Adverse reaction of sodium hypochlorite during endodontic treatment of primary teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8:153-6.
Mustafa M. Antibacterial efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica
) extract against Enterococcus faecalis
: Anin vitro
study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17:791-4.
Joy Sinha D, Nandha DK, Jaiswal N, Vasudeva A, Prabha Tyagi S, Pratap Singh U, et al.
Antibacterial effect of Azadirachta indica
(Neem) or Curcuma longa
(Turmeric) against Enterococcus faecalis
compared with that of 5% sodium hypochlorite or 2% chlorhexidine in vitro
. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 2017;58:103-9.
Nabavi SF, Di Lorenzo A, Izadi M, Sobarzo-Sánchez E, Daglia M, Nabavi SM. Antibacterial effects of cinnamon: From farm to food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Nutrients 2015;7:7729-48.
Gupta A, Duhan J, Tewari S, Sangwan P, Yadav A, Singh G, et al.
Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum,Ocimum sanctum
and cinnamomum zeylanicum
plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis
: A preliminary study. Int Endod J 2013;46:775-83.
Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, Saujanya KP, Patil AK, Kakde DD. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis
– Anin vitro
study. J Int Oral Health 2013;5:61-6.
Venkatadri B, Arunagirinathan N, Rameshkumar MR, Ramesh L, Dhanasezhian A, Agastian P, et al. In vitro
antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Aristolochia indica
and Toddalia asiatica
against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Indian J Pharm Sci 2015;77:788-91. [Full text]
Mistry KS, Sanghvi Z, Parmar G, Shah S. The antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica,Mimusops elengi,Tinospora cardifolia
, ocimum sanctum and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on common endodontic pathogens: Anin vitro
study. Eur J Dent 2014;8:172-7. [Full text]
Al-Mariri A, Safi M.In vitro
antibacterial activity of several plant extracts and oils against some gram-negative bacteria. Iran J Med Sci 2014;39:36-43.
Gomes BP, Pinheiro ET, Sousa EL, Jacinto RC, Zaia AA, Ferraz CC, et al.Enterococcus faecalis
in dental root canals detected by culture and by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006;102:247-53.
Haapasalo M, Orstavik D.In vitro
infection and disinfection of dentinal tubules. J Dent Res 1987;66:1375-9.
Vasudeva A, Sinha DJ, Tyagi SP, Singh NN, Garg P, Upadhyay D. Disinfection of dentinal tubules with 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide and herbal intracanal medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis
: Anin vitro
study. Singapore Dent J 2017;38:39-44.
Dutta A, Kundabala M. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica
irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study. J Conserv Dent 2014;17:133-7.
] [Full text]
Babaji P, Jagtap K, Lau H, Bansal N, Thajuraj S, Sondhi P. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia,Azadirachta indica,Aloe vera
) with sodium hypochlorite: Anin vitro
study. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2016;6:196-9.
Gupta-Wadhwa A, Wadhwa J, Duhan J. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of three herbal irrigants in reducing intracanal E. faecalis
populations: Anin vitro
study. J Clin Exp Dent 2016;8:e230-5.
Clinic 28, Saveetha Dental College, Poonamallee High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]
|This article has been cited by|
||Comparison of Herbal Agents with Sodium Hypochlorite as Root Canal Irrigant: A Systematic Review of In Vitro Studies
| ||Kavalipurapu Venkata Teja, Krishnamachari Janani, Kumar Chandan Srivastava, Deepti Shrivastava, Jerry Jose, Anand Marya, Mohmed Isaqali Karobari, Lidia Audrey Rocha Valadas |
| ||Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021; 2021: 1 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Decalepis hamiltonii (Swallow Root) as a Potential Antimicrobial Agent against Endodontic Pathogens: An In Vitro Study
| ||V Susila Anand, Selvam Sangeeta |
| ||Journal of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics. 2021; 6(1): 1 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Effects of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.) in Dentistry: A Review
| ||Spartak Yanakiev |
| ||Molecules. 2020; 25(18): 4184 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
| Article Access Statistics|
| Viewed||3794 |
| Printed||141 |
| Emailed||0 |
| PDF Downloaded||141 |
| Comments ||[Add] |
| Cited by others ||3 |