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An overview of the corrosion aspect of dental implants (titanium and its alloys)
TP Chaturvedi
January-March 2009, 20(1):91-98
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.49068  PMID:19336868
Titanium and its alloys are used in dentistry for implants because of its unique combination of chemical, physical, and biological properties. They are used in dentistry in cast and wrought form. The long term presence of corrosion reaction products and ongoing corrosion lead to fractures of the alloy-abutment interface, abutment, or implant body. The combination of stress, corrosion, and bacteria contribute to implant failure. This article highlights a review of the various aspects of corrosion and biocompatibility of dental titanium implants as well as suprastructures. This knowledge will also be helpful in exploring possible research strategies for probing the biological properties of materials.
  199 38,948 1,892
Platelet-rich fibrin: Evolution of a second-generation platelet concentrate
V Sunitha Raja, E Munirathnam Naidu
January-March 2008, 19(1):42-46
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.38931  PMID:18245923
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a platelet concentrate that has been used widely to accelerate soft-tissue and hard-tissue healing. The preparation of PRP has been described by several authors. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) was first described by Choukroun et al. in France. It has been referred to as a second-generation platelet concentrate, which has been shown to have several advantages over traditionally prepared PRP. Its chief advantages include ease of preparation and lack of biochemical handling of blood, which makes this preparation strictly autologous. This article describes the evolution of this novel platelet concentrate, referred to as PRF.
  189 47,734 4,729
Physiology and toxicity of fluoride
Vineet Dhar, Maheep Bhatnagar
July-September 2009, 20(3):350-355
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.57379  PMID:19884722
Fluoride has been described as an essential element needed for normal development and growth of animals and extremely useful for human beings. Fluoride is abundant in the environment and the main source of fluoride to humans is drinking water. It has been proved to be beneficial in recommended doses, and at the same time its toxicity at higher levels has also been well established. Fluoride gets accumulated in hard tissues of the body and has been know to play an important role in mineralization of bone and teeth. At high levels it has been known to cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. There are suggested effects of very high levels of fluoride on various body organs and genetic material. The purpose of this paper is to review the various aspects of fluoride and its importance in human life.
  151 40,294 2,219
Dental esthetic satisfaction, received and desired dental treatments for improvement of esthetics
Zuhre Zafersoy Akarslan, Burak Sadik, Hulya Erten, Erdem Karabulut
April-June 2009, 20(2):195-200
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52902  PMID:19553722
Aim: The purposes of this research were to investigate factors influencing patients' satisfaction with their present dental esthetic, received previous dental treatments on anterior teeth and basic treatments that they wanted to undergo to improve their dental appearance. Materials and Methods: A total of 1014 patients who attended a dental school in a major city in Turkey participated in the study. The participants were surveyed with a questionnaire containing questions about gender, age, education level, self-reported tooth appearance, received previous dental treatments on anterior teeth and desired basic esthetic dental treatments. Statistical analysis of the verifying data was made with descriptive statistics, χ2 test and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: According to the analyses of the verifying data, 55.1% of the patients were dissatisfied with the color of their teeth, 42.7% with dental appearance, 29.9% with crowding of anterior teeth, 23.3% were hiding teeth while smiling, 16.1% had non-esthetic restorations and 11.9% thought that their anterior teeth were protruding. Esthetic restoration was found to be the most-performed treatment recently (29.0%) and whitening of teeth was the most-desired dental treatment (49.0%). Gender, age and education level had an effect on satisfaction and received previous and desired dental treatments for improvement of esthetics. Conclusion: Many of the Turkish patients surveyed in the study were dissatisfied and desired the improvement of dental esthetics. Therefore, dentists should consider this as an important dimension in their practice.
  89 20,611 974
Pentoxifylline therapy : A new adjunct in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis
R Rajendran, Vidya Rani, Saleem Shaikh
October-December 2006, 17(4):190-198
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.29865  PMID:17217216
OBJECTIVE : This study was designed to determine the effect of pentoxifylline (Trental) on the clinical and pathologic course of oral submucous fibrosis. This drug is a methylxanthine derivative that has vasodilating properties and was envisaged to increase mucosal vascularity. STUDY DESIGN : This investigation was conducted as a randomized clinical trial incorporating a control group (Standard drug group SDG, multivitamin, and local heat therapy) in comparison to pentoxifylline test cases (Experimental drug group EDG, 400mg 3 times daily, as coated, sustained release tablets). The stipulated treatment period was 7 months and a total of 29 cases of advanced fibrosis (14 test subjects and 15 age and sex matched diseased controls) were included in this study and 100% compliance was reported at the end ofthe test period. RESULTS : Mild gastric irritation that could be managed by diet protocols was the only untoward symptom reported during this trial. Review of the patients and controls was done at an interval of 30 days and subjective and objective measurements were recorded. The follow up data at each visit with respect to each other and to base-line values was calibrated using a nonparametric test of Mann-Whitney (Kruskal-Wallis test). Significant comparisons with regard to improvement were recorded as objective criteria of mouth opening (t=11.285, p= 0.000), tongue protrusion (t= 3.898, p = 0.002), and relief from perioral fibrotic bands (p = 0.0001554). Subjective symptoms of intolerance to spices (p = 0.0063218), burning sensation of mouth (p = 0.0005797), tinnitus (p=0.000042), difficulty in swallowing (p=0.0000714). and difficulty in speech (p=0.0000020) were also recorded significant improvement at the end of the trial period. CONCLUSION : This pilot investigation points to the effectiveness of pentoxifylline as an adjunct therapy in the routine management of oral submucous fibrosis.
  87 26,634 8
Prevalence of oral lesions in relation to habits : Cross-sectional study in South India.
TR Saraswathi, K Ranganathan, S Shanmugam, R Sowmya, Prem Deepa Narasimhan, R Gunaseelan
July-September 2006, 17(3):121-5
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.29877  PMID:17176828
BACKGROUND: Smoking, drinking and chewing tobacco product, common habits in India have been positively associated with oral lesions. No study has been conducted in this part of Tamilnadu regarding the prevalence of oral lesions in relation to habits. METHODS: A hospital based cross-sectional study was carried out at Ragas Dental College, Chennai. Already existing data of two thousand and seventeen consecutive patients from sub-urban areas of Chennai, who attended the outpatient department, at Ragas Dental College, for dental complaints during a period of three months in 2004, who underwent oral examination and interviewer based questionnaire was used. RESULTS: Oral soft tissue lesions were found in 4.1% of the study subjects. The prevalence of leukoplakia, OSF and oral lichen planus was 0.59%, 0.55%, and 0.15% respectively. The prevalence of smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages and chewing was 15.02%, 8.78% and 6.99% respectively. Smoking and chewing were significant predictors of leukoplakia in this population. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of leukoplakia, OSF and oral lichen planus in our study population is similar to those found in other populations. The prevalence of consumption of alcoholic beverages in our study population was higher when compared to the Indian National Sample Survey study. However the prevalence of smoking and chewing was found to be lower. Smokers were more likely to develop smoker's melanosis compared to other lesions. Among those who consumed alcoholic beverages alone, the prevalence of leukoplakia was higher compared to other lesions. OSF was the most prevalent lesion among those who chewed panmasala or gutkha or betel quid with or without tobacco.
  84 20,842 3,115
The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India
Anuna Laila Mathew, Keerthilatha M Pai, Amar A Sholapurkar, Manoj Vengal
April-June 2008, 19(2):99-103
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.40461  PMID:18445924
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Manipal, Karnataka State, India. A total of 1190 subjects who visited the department of oral medicine and radiology for diagnosis of various oral complaints over a period of 3 months were interviewed and clinically examined for oral mucosal lesions. The result showed the presence of one or more mucosal lesions in (41.2%) of the population. Fordyce's condition was observed most frequently (6.55%) followed by frictional keratosis (5.79%), fissured tongue (5.71%), leukoedema (3.78%), smoker's palate (2.77%), recurrent aphthae, oral submucous fibrosis (2.01%), oral malignancies (1.76%), leukoplakia (1.59%), median rhomboid glossitis (1.50%), candidiasis (1.3%), lichen planus (1.20%), varices (1.17%), traumatic ulcer and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.008%), denture stomatitis, geographic tongue, betel chewer's mucosa and irritational fibroma (0.84%), herpes labialis, angular cheilitis (0.58%), and mucocele (0.16%). Mucosal lesions like tobacco-related lesions (leukoplakia, smoker's palate, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral malignancies) were more prevalent among men than among women. Denture stomatitis, herpes labialis, and angular cheilitis occurred more frequently in the female population.
  83 20,904 2,175
Comparison of physical and mechanical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate and Biodentine
Naziya Butt, Sangeeta Talwar, Sarika Chaudhry, Ruchika Roongta Nawal, Seema Yadav, Anuradha Bali
November-December 2014, 25(6):692-697
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.152163  PMID:25728098
Background: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) fulfills many of the ideal properties of the root-end filling material. However, its low cohesive property often makes it difficult to handle. Biodentine, new calcium-silicate-based cement has been developed to improve some MTA drawbacks such as its difficult handling property and long-setting time. Aim: The objective of this study was to compare at different times the microleakage of roots filled with Biodentine and white MTA (WMTA)-Angelus and to investigate their setting time, handling properties and compressive strength. Materials and Methods: Root canals of single-rooted teeth were instrumented, filled with either Biodentine or WMTA-Angelus (n = 15 each) with two positive and two negative control roots and stored at 37°C. Sealing was assessed at 4, 24 h, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by a fluid filtration method. The initial setting time, handling properties, and compressive strength of the test groups were investigated by a vicat needle, questionnaire of operational hand feel, and universal instron machine, respectively. Results: Significant differences in microleakage were found between two groups at 4-h and 24 h (P < 0.05) and no difference at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. No significant difference was seen in the setting time of MTA-Angelus and Biodentine, though latter was found to have better handling consistency. Compressive strength of Biodentine was significantly higher than MTA-Angelus. Conclusions: The results suggest that the new calcium-silicate-based endodontic cement provides improvement in sealing ability as well as clinical manageability of dental filling materials.
  82 13,746 569
Association between symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and gender, morphological occlusion, and psychological factors in a group of university students
Leonardo R Bonjardim, Ricardo J Lopes-Filho, Guilherme Amado, Ricardo LC Albuquerque, Suzane RJ Goncalves
April-June 2009, 20(2):190-194
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52901  PMID:19553721
Aim: The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in a sample of university students and its relationship to gender, occlusion, and psychological factors. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 196 subjects, aged 18-25 years. The TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification (classes I, II, and III). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a 14-item self-administered rating scale developed specifically to identify anxiety and depression in nonpsychiatric medical outpatients, was used to assess the levels of anxiety (HADSa) and depression (HADSd). Statistical Analysis: The incidence of TMD level, malocclusion, anxiety, and depression in both genders was calculated as percentages. Association between TMD degree and occlusion, HADSa, and HADSd was tested using the Chi-square test. Results: According to our results, 50% of the subjects had TMD, but it was of moderate or severe degree in only 9.18% of them. No statistically significant association could be found between TMD and gender or occlusion. TMD was found to have statistically significant association with HADSa but not with HADSd. Conclusion : A high prevalence of TMD was found in this student population; however, most of the cases could be classified as mild. Of the variables studied, only HADSa had a statistically significant association with TMD.
  74 14,803 996
Trends in the epidemiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Western UP: An institutional study
Preeti Sharma, Susmita Saxena, Pooja Aggarwal
July-September 2010, 21(3):316-319
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.70782  PMID:20930335
Objective: The purpose of the study was to identify trends in incidence rates of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) at specific anatomic sites or within specific age or sex groups in the Western Uttar Pradesh population. Materials and Methods: The study covers the period from January 2004 through April 2009. OSCC cases were retrospectively analysed for site, age, gender and habits and the findings were formulated to chart the trends in Western U.P. Results: The study revealed a male to female ratio of 2.2:1 with the largest number of OSCCs developing in the fourth and fifth decades of life. Overall, the most common site was the buccal mucosa (63.75%), followed by retromolar area (15%), floor of the mouth (11.25%), lateral border of the tongue (3.75%), labial mucosa (3.75%), and palate (2.5%). Smokeless tobacco habit was more prevalent than smoking tobacco in both men as well as women. Karl - Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to find the degree of association between the two variables i.e. between gender to buccal mucosa and gender to smokeless and smoking tobacco habits, which were found to be positively correlated with respect to the age. Conclusion: Oral cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with an incidence rate that varies widely by geographic location. Even within one geographic location, the incidence varies among groups categorized by age, sex, site or habit.
  74 16,670 1,127
Effects of smoking on the outcome of implant treatment: A literature review
Mirza Rustum Baig, Manoj Rajan
October-December 2007, 18(4):190-195
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.35831  PMID:17938497
Statement of Problem: The use of osseointegrated implants as a foundation for the prosthetic replacement of missing teeth has become widespread in the last decade. Owing to the remarkable success of dental implants, there has been growing interest in identifying the factors associated with implant failure. Given the well-documented deleterious effect of smoking on wound healing after tooth extraction and its association with poor quality bone and periodontal disease, a negative effect of tobacco use on implant success is to be expected. Purpose: To establish the relationship between smoking and implant-related surgical procedures (i.e, sinus lift procedures, bone grafts and dental implants), including the incidence of complications related to these procedures and the long-term survival and success rates of dental implants among smokers and nonsmokers based on relevant literature. Materials and Methods: Relevant clinical studies published in English between 1990 and 2006 were reviewed. The articles were located through Medline and, manually, through the references of peer-reviewed literature. This was supplemented with a hand search of selected dental journals and text books. Results: The majority of the past and current literature implicates smoking as one of the prominent risk factors affecting the success rate of dental implants with only a handful of studies failing to establish a connection. Most of the studies report the failure rate of implants in smokers as being more than twice that in nonsmokers. These findings are difficult to ignore. There is a statistically significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in the failure rates of dental implants. Smoking also has a strong influence on the complication rates of implants: it causes significantly more marginal bone loss after implant placement, it increases the incidence of peri-implantitis and affects the success rates of bone grafts. The failure rate of implants placed in grafted maxillary sinuses of smokers is again more than twice that seen in nonsmokers. Conclusion: Smokers have higher failure rates and complications following dental implantation and implant-related surgical procedures. The failure rate of implants placed in grafted maxillary sinuses of smokers is more than twice that seen in nonsmokers.
  70 40,944 3,270
Tobacco smoking and surgical healing of oral tissues: A review
SM Balaji
October-December 2008, 19(4):344-348
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.44540  PMID:19075440
It is believed that the crew of Columbus had introduced tobacco from the 'American India' to the rest of the world, and tobacco was attributed as a medicinal plant. It was often used to avert hunger during long hours of work. But in reality, tobacco causes various ill effects including pre-malignant lesions and cancers. This article aims at reviewing the literature pertaining to the effect of tobacco smoking upon the outcome of various surgical procedures performed in the oral cavity. Tobacco affects postoperative wound healing following surgical and nonsurgical tooth extractions, routine maxillofacial surgeries, implants, and periodontal therapies. In an experimental study, bone regeneration after distraction osteogenesis was found to be negatively affected by smoking. Thus, tobacco, a peripheral vasoconstrictor, along with its products like nicotine increases platelet adhesiveness, raises the risk of microvascular occlusion, and causes tissue ischemia. Smoking tobacco is also associated with catecholamines release resulting in vasoconstriction and decreased tissue perfusion. Smoking is believed to suppress the innate and host immune responses, affecting the function of neutrophils - the prime line of defense against infection. Thus, the association between smoking and delayed healing of oral tissues following surgeries is evident. Dental surgeons should stress on the ill effects of tobacco upon the routine postoperative healing to smoker patients and should aid them to become tobacco-free.
  70 36,581 1,981
A five-year retrospective statistical analysis of maxillofacial injuries in patients admitted and treated at two hospitals of Mysore city
BR Chandra Shekar, CVK Reddy
October-December 2008, 19(4):304-308
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.44532  PMID:19075432
Objectives: This study aims to provide a five-year retrospective statistical analysis of maxillofacial injuries in patients admitted and treated during 1 st January 1998 and 31 st December 2002 in two hospitals of Mysore city; to determine the age and sex distribution, etiology, type of injury, day and time of accident, and the influence of alcohol and other drugs; andto suggest measures to prevent such injuries. Materials and Methods: After obtaining permission from the concerned authorities, a pre-designed questionnaire was used to collect the necessary data from the two hospitals. The data was then computerized and statistical analysis was done using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) windows version 10. Results: Road traffic accident (RTA) was the common cause for maxillofacial injuries. Men sustained more injuries compared to women. The injuries were mostly sustained in the age group of 11-40 years, constituting about 78% of all the injuries. Two wheelers were the most commonly involved compared to other vehicle types. Influence of alcohol at the time of injury was found in about 58% of the patients with maxillofacial injuries. The most number of accidents occurred in the weekends. Mandibular fractures were the most common. Conclusion: RTAs are the most common cause for maxillofacial injuries. If RTAs are considered an epidemic of modern times, then prevention is its vaccine.
  65 11,119 689
Effectiveness of a school dental education program in improving oral health knowledge and oral hygiene practices and status of 12- to 13-year-old school children
Rekha P Shenoy, Peter S Sequeira
April-June 2010, 21(2):253-259
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.66652  PMID:20657097
Background: Children with poor oral health are 12 times more likely to have restricted-activity days. Dental health education [DHE], with the objective of improving the oral hygiene of the participants, would have obvious merits. Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of school DHE, conducted at repeated and differing intervals, in improving oral health knowledge, practices, oral hygiene status, and the gingival health of schoolchildren belonging to two socioeconomic classes. Materials and Methods: This 36-week duration study assessed the effectiveness of school DHE conducted every three weeks against every six weeks on oral health knowledge, practices, oral hygiene status and gingival health of 415, 12- to 13-year-old schoolchildren belonging to social classes I and V. Of the three selected schools of each social class, one each was subjected to the intervention of either three or six weeks or was a control, respectively. Oral health knowledge and practices were evaluated using a questionnaire. Oral hygiene and gingival health were assessed using plaque and gingival indices. Statistical Analysis Used: Friedman's test was used for the longitudinal analysis of data. ANOVA and Student's t test were used for continuous data. Results: Plaque and Gingival score reductions were highly significant in intervention schools, and were not influenced by the socioeconomic status. When oral health knowledge was evaluated, highly significant changes were seen in intervention schools; more significantly in schools receiving more frequent interventions. The socioeconomic status influenced the oral hygiene aids used and the frequency of change of toothbrush. Controls showed no significant changes throughout. Conclusions: The DHE program conducted at three-week intervals was more effective than that conducted at six-week intervals in improving oral health knowledge, practices, oral hygiene status, and gingival health of schoolchildren.
  64 29,786 1,474
Uses of turmeric in dentistry: An update
TP Chaturvedi
January-March 2009, 20(1):107-109
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.49065  PMID:19336870
Turmeric has been used for thousands of years as a dye, a flavoring, and a medicinal herb. In India, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver ailments, as well as topically to heal sores. Ancient Indian medicine has touted turmeric as an herb with the ability to provide glow and luster to the skin as well as vigor and vitality to the entire body. Since turmeric has antimicrobial, antioxidant, astringent, and other useful properties, it is quite useful in Dentistry also. The objective of this article is to highlight various uses of turmeric in the dental field along with its use in medical problems.
  62 61,650 2,464
Efficacy of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF on enamel remineralization - An in vitro study using scanning electron microscope and DIAGNOdent®
Jayanth Jayarajan, P Janardhanam, P Jayakumar, Deepika
January-February 2011, 22(1):77-82
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.80001  PMID:21525682
Introduction: Remineralization as a treatment procedure has received a lot of attention both from clinicians as well researchers. The objective of this in vitro study was to find out the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF) in remineralizing enamel surface on which artificial caries lesion had been created. The changes were analyzed using DIAGNOdent® (KaVo) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Ninety maxillary premolars were selected and divided into three groups of 30 teeth each: A (artificial saliva), B (CPP-ACP), and C (CPP-ACPF). All the samples were assessed using DIAGNOdent® at the baseline and after demineralization and remineralization. Three samples were randomly selected from each group after remineralization for surface evaluation using SEM. Results: Statistical analysis showed that group B {CPP-ACP (4.1±1.8)} and group C {CPP-ACPF (4.8±1.2)} had a significantly higher amount of remineralization than group A (1.7±0.7). Conclusion: All the three groups showed a statistically significant amount of remineralization. However, because of the added benefit of fluoride (NaF 0.2%), CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse-Plus®) showed marginally more amount of remineralization than CPP-ACP (Tooth Mousse®).
  60 20,238 1,145
Oral health status and treatment needs in institutionalized psychiatric patients : One year descriptive cross sectional study
Manish Kumar, GN Chandu, MD Shafiulla
October-December 2006, 17(4):171-177
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.29868  PMID:17217213
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : Psychiatric patients are one of the special groups requiring attention as they are often neglected. Oral health is an major determinant of general health for psychiatric patients and may have a low priority in the context of mental illness. The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of institutionalized psychiatric patients of Davangere. METHODS : 220 psychiatric patients admitted in two general hospitals of Davangere during the period of one year were included in the study. The oral health status was evaluated with respect to caries, oral hygiene, and periodontal status. RESULTS : Of the 180 examined with the response rate of 81.8%. 58.3% were males, mean age was 36.7 years, 57.8% had < 1 year of mental illness with a mean of 2.2 years, and 90% were self-sufficient. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean DMFT (0.92) increased with age, duration of mental illness, and irregularity of oral hygiene habits (P<0.001). Mean OHI-S score was 3.3 and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean OHI-S score increased with age (P<0.001). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the CPI score increased with age, duration of mental illness, and degree of helplessness (P<0.001). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION : The findings of this study demonstrates low caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene, and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment.
  58 14,999 2
Clinical investigation of mucosal thickness stability after soft tissue grafting around implants: A 3-year retrospective study
Stefano Speroni, Marco Cicciù, Paolo Maridati, Giovanni Battista Grossi, Carlo Maiorana
October-December 2010, 21(4):474-479
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.74208  PMID:21187608
Purpose: To assess the long-term stability of gingival grafts placed around dental implants at the time of second surgery uncovering and to further investigate the association between mucosal thickness (MTh) by demographic variables and clinical investigation. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients with submerged dental implants covered by inadequate keratinized mucosa were studied. The subjects underwent a periimplant plastic surgery (PPS) at the second-stage dental implant surgery and free gingival autograft orsubepithelial connective tissue graft were used according to the patients' clinical situation. Clinical measurement of MTh was assessed by bone sounding with a periodontal probe using customized acrylic stents andthe values were recorded at baseline (day of graft) and at 0.5, 1.5, 4, 12, 24 and 36 months after grafting. Results: At 12 months postoperatively, the mean MTh was 2.89 mm, with a mean additional increase of 1.75 mm when compared with baseline (P=0.0001). No statistically significant differences in MTh were found between the 12- and the 36-month observations (P=0.09). In addition, at 36 months, a thin mucosa was associated with a greater increase in the MTh compared with a thick mucosa (2.14 and 0.64 mm, respectively, P=0.006). Similarly, the mandibular sites were associated with a greater increase in the MTh in comparison with the maxillary sites (2.17 and 0.81 mm, respectively; P=0.02). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this investigation, the data suggest that PPS at the second-stage dental implant surgery could results in additional increases in MTh, especially when it is performed in areas where the mucosa is of a thin biotype.
  56 13,133 325
Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: An in vitro study
Mithun B.H Pai, GM Prashant, KS Murlikrishna, KM Shivakumar, GN Chandu
July-September 2010, 21(3):334-336
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.70792  PMID:20930339
Background: The establishment and maintenance of oral microbiota is related not only to interbacterial coaggregations but also to interactions of these bacteria with yeasts. Hence, it is important for agents used in the treatment of oral diseases to have antifungal properties for effective therapy. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The pomegranate peel is separated, dried and powdered. Fennel, cumin and acacia bark obtained from the tree are powdered. Candida is inoculated at 37˚C and seeded on Sabourauds agar medium. Sterilized filter papers saturated with 30 μl of the extracts are placed on the seeded plates and inoculated at 24 and 48 h. Zones of inhibition on all four sides are measured around the filter paper with a vernier caliper. The experiments were repeated on four plates, with four samples of each extract on one plate for all of the extracts. Results: All the above-mentioned ingredients showed antifungal property, with Punica granatum showing the highest inhibition of Candida albicans with a mean zone of inhibition of 22 mm. P-values <0.05 were obtained for Punica granatum when compared with the other extracts. Conclusion: The results showed the potential use of these products as cheap and convenient adjuvants to pharmaceutical antifungal products.
  55 15,651 675
The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study
GM Prashant, GN Chandu, KS Murulikrishna, MD Shafiulla
October-December 2007, 18(4):148-151
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.35822  PMID:17938488
Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries. Materials and Methods: The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4°C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Results: Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms. Interpretation and Conclusion: A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.
  54 24,039 2,456
Evaluation of salivary cortisol and psychological factors in patients with oral lichen planus
Bina Shah, L Ashok, GP Sujatha
July-September 2009, 20(3):288-292
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.57361  PMID:19884710
Background and Objectives: Lichen planus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa and skin. Cortisol, also called as "stress hormone", has been used as an indicator in various stress evaluation studies. Salivary cortisol measurement is an indicator of free cortisol or biologically active cortisol in human serum and provides noninvasive and easy technique. Recent studies have been conflicting, and hence, in the present study, evaluation of salivary cortisol levels and psychosocial factors in oral lichen planus (OLP) patients was done. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients with clinically and histopathologically proven cases of OLP, along with the age and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Samples of stimulated saliva were collected, centrifuged and analyzed for the level of cortisol with cortisol enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Psychosocial factors of study and control groups were measured by depression anxiety and stress scale. Student's t-test was used to compare the psychological factors and salivary cortisol levels between patients with the OLP and the control group. Results: Irrespective of sex, significantly higher depression (83.4 ± 15.4%), anxiety (80.5 ± 11.3%), and stress (94.2 ± 6.2%) scores were observed in OLP patients compared to controls. Increased cortisol levels were observed among 17 (56.6%) OLP patients in the study group. A positive correlation was found between psychological factors and salivary cortisol levels in the OLP patients. The values of Pearson's correlation coefficient "r", between depression, anxiety, and stress with salivary cortisol was: +0.42,S; +0.27,NS; and +0.65,HS, respectively among the study group.
  54 10,692 926
Effect of oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized, controlled, triple-blind study
Sharath Asokan, Pamela Emmadi, Raghuraman Chamundeswari
January-March 2009, 20(1):47-51
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.49067  PMID:19336860
Background: Oil pulling has been used extensively as a traditional Indian folk remedy for many years for strengthening teeth, gums, and the jaw and to prevent decay, oral malodor, bleeding gums, dryness of the throat, and cracked lips. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil pulling with sesame oil on plaque-induced gingivitis and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Methods : A total of 20 age-matched adolescent boys with plaque-induced gingivitis were selected for this study. They were divided randomly into the study or oil pulling group (Group I) and the control or chlorhexidine group (Group II) with 10 subjects in each group. Plaque index and modified gingival index scores were recorded for the 20 subjects and baseline plaque samples were also collected. The plaque samples were used to identify the microorganisms and to measure the total colony count of the aerobic microorganisms present. The study group was subjected to oil pulling with sesame oil and the control group was given chlorhexidine mouthwash everyday in the morning before brushing. Reassessment of the index scores and collection of plaque for measuring the colony count of the aerobic microorganisms was done after 10 days. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction of the pre- and post-values of the plaque and modified gingival index scores in both the study and control groups ( P < 0.001 in both). There was a considerable reduction in the total colony count of aerobic microorganisms present in both the groups. Conclusion: The oil pulling therapy showed a reduction in the plaque index, modified gingival scores, and total colony count of aerobic microorganisms in the plaque of adolescents with plaque-induced gingivitis.
  53 163,690 1,744
Influence of different post design and composition on stress distribution in maxillary central incisor: Finite element analysis
Natercia R Silva, Carolina G Castro, Paulo CF Santos-Filho, Gisele R Silva, Roberto E Campos, Paulo Vinicins Soares, Carlos Jose Soares
April-June 2009, 20(2):153-158
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.52888  PMID:19553714
Background: Post design and material has very important effects on dentinal stress distribution since the post placement can create stresses that lead to root fracture. Materials and Methods: In this study we use finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate stress distribution on endodontically treated maxillary central incisors that have been restored with different prefabricated posts. Six models were generated from the image of anatomical plate: Four metallic posts (ParaPost XH, ParaPost XT, ParaPost XP, and Flexi-Flange) and one fiberglass post (ParaPost Fiber Lux). The sixth model was a control-a sound maxillary central incisor. We used CAD software and exported the models to ANSYS 9.0. All the materials and structures were considered elastic, isotropic, homogeneous, and linear except the fiberglass post which was considered orthotropic. The values for the mechanical properties were obtained by a review of the literature and the model was meshed with 8-node tetrahedral elements. A load of 2N was applied to the lingual surface at an angle of 135°. Results: The stress results were recorded by shear stress and von Mises criteria; it was observed that there was no difference for stress distribution among the titanium posts in the radicular portions and into posts. There was higher stress concentration on the coronary portion with the titanium posts than with the glass fiber post. It seems that the metallic posts' external configuration does not influence the stress distribution. Conclusion: Fiber posts show more homogeneous stress distribution than metallic posts. The post material seems to be more relevant for the stress distribution in endodontically treated teeth than the posts' external configuration.
  52 13,967 1,874
Etiopathogenesis of disk displacement of the temporomandibular joint: A review of the mechanisms
Daniele Manfredini
April-June 2009, 20(2):212-221
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.51365  PMID:19553725
Disk displacement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a clinically important condition, showing a high prevalence in both patient and non-patient populations. Despite its clinical importance, there is incomplete understanding of the etiopathogenic mechanisms leading to disk displacement. A number of possible risk factors have been identified. This article analyzes the etiopathogenesis from both the clinical and the biomechanical viewpoints and also reviews the literature on the association between disk displacement and the main risk factors (i.e., trauma, altered disk shape and/or dynamic properties, occlusal abnormalities, steepness of the articular eminence, hyperactivity of the lateral pterygoid muscle, joint hypermobility, etc.). According to our interpretation of available data, an impairment of joint lubrication may be a common finding in cases of disk displacement, thus suggesting the need for future studies addressing both local and systemic neuroendocrine aspects influencing the friction coefficient of the TMJ. A full comprehension of the etiopathogenesis of disk displacement is far from being achieved, and clinicians must take into account this consideration when treating patients with temporomandibular disorders.
  52 17,565 1,180
Impact factor and other standardized measures of journal citation: A perspective
Vijay Prakash Mathur, Ashutosh Sharma
January-March 2009, 20(1):81-85
DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.49072  PMID:19336866
The impact factor of journals has been widely used as glory quotients. Despite its limitations, this citation metric is widely used to reflect scientific merit and standing in one's field. Apart from the impact factor, other bibliometric indicators are also available but are not as popular among decision makers. These indicators are the immediacy index and cited half-life. The impact factor itself is affected by a wide range of sociological and statistical factors. This paper discusses the limitations of the impact factor with suggestions of how it can be used and how it should not be used. It also discusses how other bibliometric indicators can be used to assess the quality of publications.
  51 25,691 3,527
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